Where RCV Is Used

Ranked Choice Voting has been enacted or used for political elections in 25 states. Two cities and several colleges and universities in Massachusetts have also enacted or used RCV.

In the United States

Ranked Choice Voting has been enacted or used for political elections in 25 states.

The State of Maine uses Ranked Choice Voting to elect candidates to the U.S. Senate, U.S. House, and in party primaries for state offices. Five more states use Ranked Choice Voting for military and overseas voters to participate in runoff elections: Arkansas, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Major political parties use RCV in four states. Eighteen U.S. cities have enacted Ranked Choice Voting for their local elections: including Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN; Oakland and San Francisco, CA; Takoma Park, MD; Basalt and Telluride, CO; Memphis, TN; Santa Fe, NM; Sarasota, FL; Ferndale, MI; Amherst, MA; Cambridge, MA; and many more.

Hover over the map below to learn about RCV enactments and proposals around the country.

In Massachusetts

The City of Cambridge has used an at-large, proportional representation form of RCV to elect their City Council and School Committee since 1941. A number of colleges and universities in Massachusetts use RCV for their student government or alumni elections. Additionally, several public school systems around the state ask parents to rank their choice of school in order of preference.


  • Cambridge (City Council and School Committee)
  • Amherst (passed in 2018; to be implemented by 2021)


  • Clark University (Undergraduate Student Council)
  • Harvard University (Undergraduate Student Council, Graduate Student Council, Graduate Music Forum)
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Undergraduate Association, Graduate Student Council, Alumni Association)
  • Northeastern (Undergraduate Student Government)
  • Tufts University (Undergraduate Community Union)
  • UMass Boston (Undergraduate Student Government)
  • Wellesley College (Academic Council)
  • Williams College (Undergraduate College Council)
  • Worcester Polytechnic Institute (Faculty Committee)


  • Boston Public Schools
  • Brockton Public Schools
  • Cambridge Public Schools
  • Fall River Public Schools
  • Somerville Public Schools
  • Lowell Public Schools

Around the World

A number of governments around the world use RCV to elect members to national, state/province, and local offices.

  • Australia (House of Representatives, Senate, state legislatures, local governments)
  • Canada (political party elections, local governments)
  • Ireland (Parliament, European elections, local governments)
  • New Zealand (regional elections, local governments)
  • Malta (Parliament, European elections, local governments)
  • Northern Ireland (National Assembly, European elections, local governments)
  • Papua New Guinea (Parliament)
  • Scotland (local governments)
  • United Kingdom (political party leaders, mayors)

Learn more about where RCV is used via FairVote.